1 Steven A. Schoenfeld, “Perfection Impossible – Why Simply ‘Good’ Indexes Can Result in a More Perfect Solution” Journal of Indexes, Second Quarter 2002
2 Steven A. Schoenfeld, “Active Index Investing: Maximizing Portfolio Performance and Minimizing Risk through Global Index Strategies,” John Wiley & Sons, Inc., Hoboken, 2004.
3 S. Schoenfeld, op. cit., pp 81-99.
4 Ibid. p. 83.
5 See “MSCI Country Classification Standard,” March 2014.
6 See “FTSE GEIS: A global, rigorous and comprehensive benchmark,” FTSE, 2014.
7 MSCI, op. cit.
9 Although SAB at the time said the reason for shifting its primary listing to the LSE in 1999 was to enable it to better pursue its international growth strategy, the underlying reason was to avoid South African exchange controls then in place that required it to get central bank approval for any shifting of assets offshore (i.e., acquisitions). This was a common strategy pursued by South African companies at the time, which, in addition to avoiding central bank scrutiny, also enabled them to maintain assets in hard currency at a time of extreme volatility in the South African rand. Other companies that subsequently shifted their primary listings to London include Anglo American, Old Mutual and BHP Billiton, among others.
10 For the complete BIGI methodology, please see bluestarindexes.com.
11 Global-X China Technology ETF (QQQC | D-20), Guggenheim China Technology ETF (CQQQ | C-25) and the KraneShares CSI China Internet ETF (KWEB | B-20)