- The SPDR S&P 500 ETF (SPY | A-98) and the iShares Core S&P 500 (IVV | A-98) both share an index that screens components for profitability, just like the index underlying the FlexShares Quality Dividend ETF (QDF | A-78) does.
- The PowerShares QQQ (QQQ | A-53) has a tier of equally weighted securities, partially mimicking RSP, thus giving it a smart-beta tilt to small-cap stocks.
- The iShares Russell 2000 ETF (IWM | A-82) accesses the small-cap premium—that’s factor investing.
- The iShares Russell 1000 Growth (IWF | A-89) has momentum exposure—that’s also factor investing.
The surprises go the other way, too—“smart funds” have some pedestrian features. VIG, the smartest-seeming of the top 10 above, is cap-weighted. So, what happened to alternative weighting as a hallmark of smart beta?
Marketing Drives Labeling
Defining smart beta is harder than you thought, huh? Actually, it’s impossible.
The definitions of smart beta that you have seen are working backward. They start with a set of funds that someone wants to call smart, and teases out their characteristics, like nonmarket-cap weighting and factor exposure. Then they generalize. That’s where the trouble begins.
The most common generalizations you’ll hear about smart beta are that it uses nonmarket-cap weightings, and provides factor exposure.
As we saw with VIG, some funds with sophisticated strategies use cap weighting. The Vanguard High Dividend Yield ETF (VYM | A-92), the PowerShares Buyback Achievers (PKW | A-94) and the db X-trackers MSCI Japan Hedged Equity Fund (DBJP | B-58) are all cap-weighted.
Factor exposure can be a design feature, as it is in the FlexShares Morningstar U.S. Market Factor Tilt ETF (TILT | A-79) or a knock-on effect, as it is in the Utilities Select Sector SPDR Fund (XLU | A-94).
The ETF menagerie is so full of complex strategies that generalizing gets you in trouble, the kind of trouble that leads you to misunderstand strategies and to miss investment opportunities.
I’ve turned the ETF universe inside out and upside down, but I can’t find a definition for smart beta that makes sense of the jumble of U.S.-listed ETFs. Defining smart beta is a fool’s errand.
Designing The Smart-Beta Wrecking Ball
It will take me some time to demolish any hopes of defining smart beta.
So, I’m going to allow myself a series of five blogs (in addition to this one): Firstly, four blogs to walk you through the illogic of existing smart-beta definitions, and one to get you on board with my radical suggestion that we ditch marketing labels and talk about what funds actually do.
In my final blog, I’ll introduce a tool I have built to help you sort funds by their strategies.
Here is my game plan, blog by blog:
- Present common definitions for smart beta and requirements for a successful definition (hint: it has to work for all funds)
- Dive deep into what cap-weighting means, and how security selection and weighting are used in the index fund industry
- Explore factor investing and its effects across the ETF universe
- Test claims regarding long-term risk-adjusted outperformance
- Propose a better way to talk about complexity and strategy in ETFs, along with a prototype strategy classification tool from ETF.com.
Stay tuned for the wrecking ball. It’s going to be a blast.
At the time this article was written, the author held long positions in IWM, IVV and IWF. Contact Elisabeth Kashner at [email protected].