This article is part of a regular series of thought leadership pieces from some of the more influential ETF strategists in the money management industry. Today's article is by James Calhoun, portfolio manager at Accuvest Global Advisors in Walnut Creek, California.
Brazil equities, as measured by the iShares MSCI Brazil ETF (EWZ), have underperformed the broader emerging market segment over the last 10 years.
However, while thoughtful pension and economic reform is urgently needed, financial markets are signaling optimism. Our own multifactor analysis currently ranks Brazil No. 2 out of 35 countries.
The MSCI Brazil Index outperformed the MSCI Emerging Markets Index by 957% from the start of 2002 to mid-2008.
However, the last 10 years (ending May 31, 2019) have seen EWZ deliver underperformance of -47.8% versus the iShares MSCI Emerging Markets ETF (EEM). Over the last decade, Brazil has transitioned from rising power to fallen star.
Brazil enjoyed prosperous years under President Luiz Inacio Lula da Silva, whose tenure coincided with a global commodities boom.
Now Lula is in jail, his successor has been impeached and her replacement has been charged in an ongoing corruption investigation. Street crime is epidemic, and the country has endured its deepest-ever recession, -3.54% real GDP growth in 2015 followed by -3.30% real GDP growth in 2016.
Fed up, Brazilians in 2018 elected a former Army captain, Jair Bolsonaro, to reverse the decline. Ending the 13-year rule of the leftist Workers’ Party, Bolsonaro promised to remake Brazil with an aggressive approach to crime and pro-market economic policies.
Bolsonaro’s University of Chicago-trained economy minister, Paulo Guedes, set out to privatize some of Brazil’s long-protected stable of 400 state-owned companies. Within five months, a newly minted infrastructure ministry had auctioned off 23 of them, including airports, port terminals and a railway, raising 8 billion reais ($2 billion).
The Bloomberg consensus real GDP growth forecast for Brazil in 2020 is +2.20%, but an annual fiscal deficit of about 7% of GDP still weighs heavily on the economy.
Outsized government spending and inefficiency result in higher interest rates for private borrowers. Importantly, pensions account for one-third of total public spending, and are a primary reason the government spends so little on Brazil’s depleted infrastructure.
On June 13, a draft bill was presented to overhaul Brazil's social security system. The government’s reform bill imposes a minimum retirement age, raises contributions, closes loopholes, and is expected to generate savings of 913.4 billion reais ($237 billion) over the next decade.
Brazilian financial markets responded to the draft bill optimistically: The benchmark Bovespa stock index rose 0.9% to a three-month high above 99,000 points, the real firmed 0.6% to 3.8400 per dollar, and 2020 interest rate futures contracts fell below 6.0% for the first time.
The reform bill will now be debated, voted on and sent to the lower house plenary for a vote. If passed in the form presented on June 13, it will be seen as a success for the Bolsonaro administration.
However, the timing of ratification remains unclear. The pension reform seems certain to suffer both delays and dilution. Approval will require leadership from the top, and Bolsonaro faces an uphill task to get congress to approve an “unappetizing” pension reform despite the benefits to Brazil’s fiscal health.
“We have two alternatives,” President Bolsonaro’s spokesman said. “Approve pension reform or sink into a bottomless pit.”
Earlier in the year, Vice President Hamilton Mourao said he expects the proposal to be approved by August.
Morgan Stanley economists expect a House vote in August, while Goldman Sachs does not see pension reform turning into law before October.