Global manganese alloy production in 2008 amounted to 13.62 million tonnes, an increase during the year of 2.4% year-on-year. SiMn accounted for well over half of alloy production, followed by high-carbon FeMn, and refined FeMn (which accounted for around 8% of total production).
In the first quarter of 2009, however, manganese ore production slipped some 29% (year-on-year), while the quarter's figure for manganese alloy production indicates a decrease of 34%.
Of pure manganese metal, China is the largest single producer and dominates the market. In 2008, the country produced some 1.13 million tons, of which only 0.24 million tons were exported. (Even back in 2007, China's capacity to produce electrolytic manganese metal was 35 times greater than that of South Africa, the world's second-largest producer of the metal.)
Except in Brazil, China and India, the pattern is for all manganese to be mined by a small number of very large companies - essentially monopolies or duopolies - in a small number of mines in the countries in which they operate.
Major Manganese Ore Producers
|Australia||Consolidated Minerals Limited|
|Groote Eylandt Mining Company Co Pty Ltd (GEMCO)|
|Brazil||Companhia Vale do Rio Doce (Vale)|
|China||Guangdong Luoding Xinrong Mengkuang|
|Guangxi Zhuang Autonomous Region Daxin Manganese Mine|
|Xiangtan Manganese Mine|
|India||Manganese Ore India Ltd|
|Mexico||Compaia Minera Autln S.A.B. de C.V.|
Whereas, historically, ferroalloy (for example, both manganese and chrome) production was predominantly situated in either the steel-producing countries or those that actually consumed the alloys, it has, more recently, migrated to those countries that produce the ores themselves.
This has certainly been the case in China. However, the country is now not only a big producer both of FeMn and SiMn from its own ore resources (and, last year, consumed 65% of domestic manganese ore doing so), but is also a major producer of the alloys from imported ore.
In 2008, China was the world's largest manganese ore importer, and such imports accounted for 40% by volume of global trade in the ore. Last year, 30% (2007: 46%) of these imports came from Australia and 26% (2007: 20%) came from Gabon. Imports from Southeast Asia increased to 12% of the total from 4% the previous year.
Some Major Manganese Ferro-Alloy Producers
|Brazil||Companhia Vale do Rio Doce|
|Erdos EJM Manganese Alloy Co|
|Henan Anyang Xinxin Ferroalloys|
|Hunan Ferroalloy Group Company Limited|
|Jinzhou Nichiden Ferroalloy Company|
|OM Holdings Qinzhou Plant|
|Shanghai Shenjia Ferroalloys Co Ltd|
|Xiangtan Manganese Mine|
|Zunyi Ferroalloy (Group) Co Ltd|
|Japan||Mizushima Ferroalloy Co Ltd|
|Ukraine||JSC Nikopol Ferroalloys Plant|
|Zaporozhye Ferroalloy Works|