This column is part of a new collection of our “Structure Matters” series of interviews with leading ETF and index industry figures. They are conducted by Dan Weiskopf, a portfolio manager at New York-based Access ETF Solutions LLC. In today’s piece, Weiskopf interviews David Brown of Sabrient Systems, an index provider for both the Guggenheim Defensive Equity ETF (DEF | B-42) and the Guggenheim Insider Sentiment ETF (NFO C-55) as well as the Direxion All Cap Insider Sentiment ETF (KNOW | B-83).
Dan Weiskopf: David, your firm seems to have a theme going with your focus on insider buying and sentiment. What are the different aspects to your screening process for the sentiment factor, and how are the two ETFs [NFO and KNOW] that run on your Insider/Analyst model different in how they use this factor? What statistical aspects to insider buying make it a good predictive factor?
David Brown: Thanks for taking an interest in the Sabrient approach to thematic multifactor modeling. In the case of our Insider/Analyst model, I had long observed that insider accumulation appeared to have some predictive qualities, and of course, there is a history of academic research that has shown such relationships.
Moreover, isolating just the open-market purchases from the total Form 4 filings further improves the predictive power of insider-buying data. In addition, our sentiment studies found that there is not only an initial positive impact on a stock price after recent positive earnings revisions from Wall Street analysts, but a longer-term upward drift that continues to persist for a while thereafter.
But when we combined these factors, we discovered some interesting synergies that created even stronger predictiveness. In particular, we look at insider buying activity, i.e., both the number of corporate officers, directors and major shareholders who are buying on the open market over the past few months, and the magnitude of each executive’s increase in beneficial ownership.
We also look at Wall Street analyst upgrades, i.e., both the number of analysts who have issued positive earnings revisions over the past three months and the magnitude of each analyst’s EPS [earnings-per-share] increase. For example, did it increase from $0.50 per share to $0.52 or to $0.75?
Both groups of people are essentially insiders in a broad sense, because they are more or less “in the know” due to their intimate knowledge of the company and its industry. In effect, postive analyst sentiment can serve as a confirmation of insider optimism.
Weiskopf: Insider buying can be an indication of a management’s relatively short-term outlook. What can investors gain from current insider-buying patterns across sectors and market-cap sizes?
Brown: In all of Sabrient’s models, a bottom-up aggregation of scores for individual stocks can create relative rankings among sectors—or any stock basket, for that matter—including market caps or ETFs. This can provide insights into which sectors are displaying, for example, relatively strong positive sentiment and therefore might be poised to outperform.
Weiskopf: Your sector weightings across Guggenheim’s NFO and Direxion’s KNOW are substantially different, except for an overweighting in consumer cyclicals. What factors have led to these ETFs having different weighting?
Brown: Two key differences between the two Sabrient indexes underlying those ETFs are the limitation on sector concentrations and turnover. NFO enforces strict limits of 20 percent from any given business sector and 10 percent from any given subindustry. KNOW has no limits at all. KNOW can essentially take larger sector bets, so to speak, whereas NFO ensures broad diversification.
In addition, NFO has a 25 percent turnover limitation on each quarterly rebalance to reduce transaction costs, while KNOW has no turnover limitation at all and it rebalances monthly, which can lead to faster rotation in sector weightings.