Inflation Peaking? CPI Suggests Otherwise

The headline CPI hit a new 41-year high, while the growth in Core CPI decelerated for a second straight month.

Senior ETF Analyst
Reviewed by: Sumit Roy
Edited by: Sumit Roy

The highly anticipated data on consumer prices did little to alleviate inflation concerns. The Bureau of Labor Statistics reported the Consumer Price Index and the Core Consumer Price Index (which strips out food and energy prices) jumped 1% and 0.6%, respectively, in May.  

Both increases were more than expected and put the headline and core indexes up 8.6% and 6%, respectively, muddling the “inflation is peaking” narrative that many investors were clinging to. 

For the headline CPI, the 8.6% increase was its fastest pace of growth since 1981, topping the 8.5% increase seen in March. On the other hand, the core CPI’s 6% increase in May was below the 6.2% seen in April and the 6.5% seen in March. 

While core inflation has fallen for two months in a row, the data contained little evidence that price pressures were abating.  

After two months of declines, used vehicle prices jumped 1.8% month over month (16.1% year over year); shelter prices accelerated to a gain of 0.6% month over month (5.5% year over year); and airline fares surged 12.6% month over month (37.8% year over year). 

Meanwhile, though food and energy prices aren’t included in core CPI, they are arguably the most visible signs of inflation for the average consumer. Food prices climbed 1.2% from April to May and 10.1% year over year—its fastest pace of growth since 1981.  

Energy prices gained 3.9% from April to May and 34.6% on a year-over-year basis, the fastest pace since 2005. 

Monetary Policy Impact  

The data will likely do little to change the Fed’s hawkish monetary policy stance. The immediate reaction in the bond markets included a 20 basis point rally in the two-year Treasury yield to 3.01%, its loftiest level since 2007. 

At the same time, the 10-year Treasury yield gained 11 basis points to 3.15%, flattening the yield curve and pointing toward increasing economic growth concerns within the bond market. 

Bond ETFs have fared poorly this year, with losses of 3.2% for the iShares 1-3 Year Treasury Bond ETF (SHY); 10.6% for the iShares Core US Aggregate Bond ETF (AGG); 11.9% for the iShares 7-10 Year Treasury Bond ETF (IEF); and 23% for the iShares 20 Plus Year Treasury Bond ETF (TLT)


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Sumit Roy is the senior ETF analyst for, where he has worked for 13 years. He creates a variety of content for the platform, including news articles, analysis pieces, videos and podcasts.

Before joining, Sumit was the managing editor and commodities analyst for Hard Assets Investor. In those roles, he was responsible for most of the operations of HAI, a website dedicated to education about commodities investing.

Though he still closely follows the commodities beat, Sumit covers a much broader assortment of topics for, with a particular focus on stock and bond exchange-traded funds.

He is the host of’s Talk ETFs, a popular video series that features weekly interviews with thought leaders in the ETF industry. Sumit is also co-host of Exchange Traded Fridays,’s weekly podcast series.

He lives in the San Francisco Bay Area, where he enjoys climbing the city’s steep hills, playing chess and snowboarding in Lake Tahoe.